COLCA VALLEYColca is one of the biggest tourist destinations in Peru; located in the northeast end of Arequipa in the Province of Caylloma. Colca comes from the words Collaguas and Cabanas, two ethnic groups that lived along the Colca River. Besides that by the way is the second deepest canyon in the world with 4,150 meters, after Cotahuasi canyon.
The province of Caylloma, designated generically as "Colca" is part of the department of Arequipa in Peru and is located in the northeast corner of this region. The province's main scenario the Colca Canyon and in its surroundings that have settled populations that identify it.
Caylloma, whose name comes from one of the villages of the place, has an area of 11 990.24 square kilometers and borders the department of Cuzco to the north, with the provinces of Camana and Arequipa in the south, with the department of Puno the east with the province of Castilla in the west and Condesuyos province in the northwest.
TOURISM:COLCA CANYON The Colca Valley, located in the north-eastern end of the Arequipa region, a few hours north of the city of Arequipa Peru. Here the river Colca and Colca Canyon is. On the tour you can see interesting natural landscapes and condors, llamas, alpacas, guanacos, vicunas and vizcachas.
The origin of this valley is due to a failure of the earth's crust, eroded by thousands of years by the longest river in the Peruvian coast. The Colca River reaches depths of up to 3.400 meters in both sides and more than 200 kilometers long.
In the Colca Valley there are 14 people staggered along the valley, full of life and color. In the Condor Cross the road passes the edge of the canyon. Experiences from previous visitors indicate that the panorama observed from there is "spectacular" as below flows the Colca River at a depth of 1,200 meters while the seawall of the front grows to 3,100 meters high in which summits are permafrost and below the majestic condors fly.
Furthermore, in the area you can visit the towns of Coporaque, with its impressive church and its unique history (ask any villager), Yanque with its thermal pools; plus Maca baths and Achoma. However, also worth visiting the Colca Valley which is rich in history and architecture, and in their villages you can see the most beautiful and oldest churches in Peru, adorned with murals and valuable paintings paintings from the period of the colony.
CHURCHES The Colca Valley shows many churches scattered throughout the valley, which bring together the best of European architectural and artistic trends with decorative ingenious contributions of the native population. The result was a rich baroque style, with influences from Arequipa and Cusco each of the churches stands for some very peculiar; some are completely built with volcanic ashlar stone; another only in their magnificent facades; keep other unique paintings and sculptures in its interiors; others are as old as the early years of the conquest.
CRAFTS The main folkloric expressions Colca are usually represented in the days of traditional celebrations including the best known the Wititi, the Qamili, the Tincachi, the Carnivals, the Turcu Tusuy and Bullfights, showing its great peculiarity in the development of its crafts.
In its craftsmanship highlights embroidered with which women embellish their costumes and hats. In addition, fiber based fabrics alpaca and llama made locally by the peoples of the top.
OROGRAPHYThe Altiplano in the Colca is represented by an extensive plateau develops at altitudes between 4,000 and 4,500 meters above sea level this is an almost flat or gently undulating surface, on which stand mountains and volcanoes that surpass the 5,000 meters it is in these areas where they excel volcanoes as the Ampato, Firura, Sabancaya, Hualca Hualca, Huarancante, Quehuisha, Mismi etc. In the places mentioned can be observed areas of persistent snow, with the presence of glaciers, glacial lakes and moraines remains as evidence that these areas have been subjected to the erosive action of glaciers during some periods. Today as a result of the reactivation of volcanic activity Sabancaya, the area is undergoing rapid changes in topography, by the melting of Nevado Hualca-Hualca, which to produce landslides of mud and stones, they are changing the physiography the area, even affecting areas of the valley. Because of its partial thaw, the volcano Ampato in Arequipa marked history and the world, when in 1995 the discovery of the Mummy Juanita girl probably sacrificed as an offering to the Apus occurred during the Inca period.
RIVER CANYONThe Colca River originates in the heights of the Yaretane and Torre hills, located at 4,750 meters above sea level, feeding its waterways primarily with precipitation falling on the heights of the western flank of the Andes and the contributions of rainfall and groundwater (springs), as well as the different streams located on both sides.
The Colca River has more than 129 km long, with Southwest-Northeast direction, draining its waters into the Pacific Ocean. On the left side it is flanked by a chain of volcanic mountains, among which the Ampato, Sabancaya and Hualca Hualca, while on the right side of the volcanic Cordillera del Chila, including the Misti (5598 m) is aligned, where the most remote origin of the Amazon river is located. In its route it takes several names: the confluence with the Rio Andamayo takes the name of Majes river; and the confluence with the Pucayura River near the coast, takes the name of Rio Camana.
In most of its course the river is encased in a deep valley, limited by inter-Andean mountain ranges, in the highlands are as many bogs, product leaks river.
Currently the terraces in the Colca River have been hung on them the total agricultural activity develops Colca basin. The streams have almost vertical slopes, where landslides occur during the rainy season, making the presence of lacustrine deposits. The Colca River presents in its route long stretches of narrow funds, usually carved on volcanic rock. In the middle of the valley its route does not cut any igneous rock and therefore its channel has a straight line.
The origin of boxing Colca River originates in the period of formation of the valley, in the final stage of the Andean Uprising. Abancay deflection would have resulted in depressions, areas of weakness and raised beds, which somehow exerted control in the direction of watercourses and formation of lake basins. Following all these processes, the current deepening has occurred mostly by river erosion, ie breakage of the base level due to sudden rapid (in geologic time, naturally) uplift of the Andes caused the narrowing of the river.
BIODIVERSITYThe diversity of altitudinal, relief and exposure and other factors determine the presence of a variety of biodiversity in the Colca Valley, we can find different species of plants and animals, many of them are in danger of extinction and others protection status. We have among them some of the following species:
Despite the extreme conditions found a diverse flora focused for about 300 species, some of which are used as medicinal, other fuel, others like sharks, and others as nutritious fodder for cattle domesticated and wild animals.
The Colca Valley is differentiated by its altitude and climate where natural grasslands are eroded by overgrazing and extraction of some plants by local villager.
agricultural -Areas and platforms: wheat, barley, alfalfa and a number of fruit and agricultural species of bread out.
-forests Of Queñua
-Ichu Or lawn Puna
-Bofedal: The vegetation consists of species of rosette-bearing and grass type that remain evergreen throughout the year ..
-columnar cacti: The most abundant species are Corryocactus brevistylus in the heights and valleys Echinopsis peruviana.
-Tolar: Before the problems of overexploitation average tola more than 1 m high. Now only reaches 40 cm.
-Rodal Puya Raymondi: We can also find it in some districts like Tapay and Madrigal.
The fauna of the province of Caylloma, despite being in a habitat with desert conditions and high mountain has a high biodiversity. Currently there have been 231 vertebrate species specially adapted. The habitat of these species are some specific ecosystems such as wetlands, the queñual or lagoon.
This varied fauna includes the following examples: the Condor, the Parihuana, flame, Huanuco, the Alpaca, the Vicuña, the Taruca, Zorro, the Vizcacha, among others.
In danger of extinction: -Taruca Or Venado Andino