Manu National Park is a protected natural area located in southeastern Peru, partially located in the departments of Cusco and Madre de Dios, in the provinces of Manu and Paucartambo. With a territory of 1,532,806 (hectare or square hectometer) is divided into three main areas: the National Park, with 1,155,806; Reserved Zone, with 257,000; and the Transition Zone and Cultural Materials, with 120,000 ha. also it has the documentation as a Biosphere Reserve.
It extends from 300 meters, at the confluence of the Manu River and the Madre de Dios River, to the 3,800 meters at the summit of the mountain Apu Kañajhuay. Some researchers believe in the virgin areas of this reserve is elPaititi or lost city of the Incas.
HISTORYInca - colonial In the Biosphere Reserve Manu there is evidence of ancient cultures like the petroglyphs Pusharo, a set of engravings of which has not yet been able to explain its origin and meaning, which were first reported by Father Vincent de Cenitagoya in 1921 and are located on the right bank of the Shinkibenia river, a tributary of the river Palotoa; other petroglyphs found in the river Q'eros on the great rock "Xinkiori" legendary for Huachipaeris. Similarly it is aware of an archaeological site in the area Mameria located in the headwaters of the river Piñi Piñi and High Tone.
The area of the national park Manu has a history marked by the arrival of foreign people, since the days of the empire of the Incas that the Inca Pachacutec and Tupac Yupanqui annexed this area his empire, until the arrival of the Spaniards who shortly afterwards invasion founded Cuzco Paucartambo, where they established farms and parcels and also where king Charles III of Spain ordered the construction of a bridge to facilitate trade in local products; It was as well as this valley began to supply the products such as Coca Cuzco, sugar, cotton, pepper, wood and others like among others, etc.
GEOGRAPHYIn its vast territory, from the high plateaus to 3500 m, covered with grass, where the dry air and temperatures vary as is the sun or under the shade, and depending on the months reaching -9 ° C to 22 ° C between September and April and the rainy season snow or hail between October and April; is down a long stretch of transition called "wooded thicket" that down to about 2,600 meters from where the vegetation is forming a forest, which to date have identified about 450 species of plants and a blind area where rainfall can reach between 500 and 1000 mm.
Forests "Montano low" take place between 2200 and 1650 m; being found trees up to 25 m. height covered with orchids and ferns growing families on the walls of deep precipices. Among them can be found Araceae broad leaves and tree ferns that characterize the place in these covered cloud forests, there is a cold climate and a landscape between shadows and darkness constantly moist and wet rain
The "Montano rain" forest, also known as "cloud forest", between 600 m.s.n.m. and 1650 m. in the fog is constant cover splendid landscape full of vegetation, here there are trees up to 30 meters high that are overgrown looking for orchids, ferns and averages, forming a dense forest interrupted only by small brooks and waterfalls that are born and lost in the vegetation. Currently it is estimated that this area contains no less than 200 different species of trees with a density that can exceed 700 per hectare. Here the temperature varies between 20 ° and 25 ° C at night can drop to 16 or 18 ° C.
"Wet tropical forest" also called "lowland" is spread over the vast Amazon plain, from 300 to 600 m. This is undoubtedly the most representative and extensive landscape of the Reserve. Here, in the area of winding river Manu, trees have a gigantic height; on the tops of these, some species of trees may emerge as the shihuahuaco and lupuna. The park is located in the provinces of Manu and Paucartambo (Departments of Madre de Dios and Cusco, respectively), covering the eastern slopes of the Andes in the Peruvian Amazon. The limits to the north are the watershed separating the catchment areas of Manu and rivers of the stones, to the area where the southern road Paucartambo in the north-west becomes Tres Cruces, east of the region the left bank of the Alto Madre de Dios river to the Pilcopata river, department of Cusco, and west of the watershed separating the catchment areas of the Manu and Camisea rivers - also the boundary between the departments of Cusco and Madre de God.